The golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) is a small New World monkey. The tamarin is easily identified by the reddish gold hair that frames its hairless face like a lion's mane.
Also known as a golden marmoset, the golden lion tamarin is an endangered species. So far, the tamarins have been saved from extinction by captive breeding in zoos and reintroduction into their native habitat. However, the outlook for this species in the wild is grim.
Fast Facts: Golden Lion Tamarin
- Scientific Name: Leontopithecus rosalia
- Common Names: Golden lion tamarin, golden marmoset
- Basic Animal Group: Mammal
- Size: 10 inches
- Weight: 1.4 pounds
- Life Span: 15 years
- Diet: Omnivore
- Habitat: Southeastern Brazil
- Population: 3200
- Conservation Status: Endangered
The most obvious characteristic of the golden lion tamarin is its colorful hair. The monkey's coat ranges from golden yellow to red-orange. The color comes from carotenoids-pigments in the animal's food-and the reaction between sunlight and hair. The hair is longer around the monkey's hairless face, resembling a lion's mane.
The golden lion tamarin is the largest of callitrichine family, but it's still a small monkey. An average adult is about 26 centimeters (10 inches) long and weighs about 620 grams (1.4 pounds). Males and females are the same size. Tamarins have long tails and fingers, and like other New World monkeys, the golden lion tamarin has claws rather than flat nails.New World monkeys, like the tamarin, use elongated fingers with claws to catch and eat prey. Steve Clancy Photography / Getty Images
Habitat and Distribution
The golden lion tamarin has a tiny distribution range, restricted to 2 to 5 percent of its original habitat. It lives in three small areas of coastal rainforest in southeastern Brazil: Poço das Antas Biological Reserve, Fazenda União Biological Reserve, and tracts of land set aside for the Reintroduction Program.Golden lion tamarin range. Oona Räisänen & IUCN
Tamarins are omnivores that eat fruit, flowers, eggs, insects, and other small animals. The golden lion tamarin uses its elongated fingers and toes to catch and extract its prey. Early in the day, the monkey feeds on fruit. In the afternoon, it hunts for insects and vertebrates.
The golden lion tamarin has a mutualistic relationship with nearly a hundred plants in the forest. The plants offer the tamarins food, and in return, the tamarins disperse seeds, helping regenerate the forest and maintaining genetic variability in the plants.
Nocturnal predators hunt the tamarins when they are sleeping. Significant predators include snakes, owls, rats, and wild cats.
Golden lion tamarins live in trees. During the day, they use their fingers, toes, and tails to travel from branch to branch in order to forage. At night, they sleep in tree hollows or dense vines. Each night, the monkeys use a different sleeping nest.
Tamarins communicate using a variety of vocalizations. Reproductive males and females communicate using scent to mark territory and suppress reproduction of other troop members. When the dominant female dies, her mate leaves the group, and her daughter becomes the breeding female. Displaced males can enter a new group when another male leaves or by aggressively displacing one.
Tamarin groups are highly territorial, defending themselves against other golden lion tamarins in their range. However, the practice of changing sleeping sites tends to prevent overlapping groups from interacting.
Reproduction and Offspring
Golden lion tamarins live together in groups of 2 to 8 members. A tamarin group is called a troop. Each troop has one breeding pair that mates during the rainy season-usually between September and March.
Gestation lasts four and a half months. The female usually gives birth to twins, but can have anywhere from 1 to 4 infants. Golden lion tamarins are born with fur and with their eyes open. All members of the troop carry and care for the infants, while the mother only takes them for nursing. The babies are weaned at three months of age.
Females become sexually mature at 18 months, while males mature at 2 years of age. In the wild, most golden lion tamarins live about 8 years, but the monkeys live 15 years in captivity.
In 1969, there were only about 150 golden lion tamarins worldwide. In 1984, the World Wildlife Fund for Nature and National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C. started a reintroduction program that involved 140 zoos around the world. However, threats to the species were so severe that the tamarin was listed as critically endangered in 1996, with a total of 400 individuals in the wild.
Today, the golden lion tamarin is categorized as endangered on the IUCN Red List, but its population is stable. An assessment in 2008 estimated there were 1,000 mature adults and 3,200 individuals of all ages in the wild.
Despite the success of the captive breeding and release program, the golden lion tamarins continue to face threats. The most significant is habitat loss and degradation from residential and commercial development, logging, farming, and ranching. Predators and poachers have learned to identify monkey sleeping sites, affecting the wild population. Golden lion tamarins also suffer from new diseases when they are translocated and from inbreeding depression.
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- Groves, C.P., Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 133, 2005. ISBN 0-801-88221-4.
- Kierulff, M.C.M.; Rylands, A.B. & de Oliveira, M.M. "Leontopithecus rosalia". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T11506A3287321. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T11506A3287321.en
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